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THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 


FACTORS INFLUENCING SECOND 
LANGUAGE LEARNING 


by 

JOHN FRANCIS BROSSEAU 


A THESIS 

SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES 
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE 

OF MASTER OF EDUCATION 


DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 
EDMONTON, ALBERTA 


SEPTEMBER, 1965 














































. 










UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 


FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES 


The undersigned certify that they have read, and 
recommend to the Faculty of Graduate Studies for acceptanc 
a thesis entitled "Factors Influencing Second Language 
Learning" submitted by John Francis Brosseau in partial 
fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of 


Education. 




Ill 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 


The writer wishes at this time to extend his thanks 
to his chairman, Dr. W.B. Dockrell, for his support and help¬ 
ful suggestions. Further thanks are extended to Mrs. M. Monod 
and Dr. M. Gulutsan for their helpful suggestions and criticisms. 

The writer is also indebted to Dr. J. Kelley for his help 
with the statistical design and the interpretation of the results. 

Special thanks are due to the Sisters of the Assumption 
for allowing this study to be conducted in their kindergarten. 
















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iv 


ABSTRACT 

The purpose of this study was to try and identify pre¬ 
disposing factors which influence second language learning in 
pre-school children. Furthermore, it was designed to isolate 
as many of these factors as possible in order to determine their 
independent contributions to second language learning. 

In order to accomplish the above, multiple linear re¬ 
gression analysis was used. Since the sample size was 33 this 
technique permitted the analysis of only three factors believed 
to be related to second language learning. Three factors which 
previous studies suggested would be most important were chrono¬ 
logical age, attitude and intelligence. 

In an attempt to identify other factors which may in¬ 
fluence second language learning, a series of additional measures, 
principally French influence in the home, Stanford-Binet vocabu¬ 
lary, sex and socio-economic status were taken. Pearson Product 
Moment Correlations were calculated to find the degree of re¬ 
lationship between these variables and the following criteria, the 
Peabody test, a measure of aural skills, and a measure of oral skills. 
The major findings of this study were: 

1. Chronological age was the most important factor influencing 
second language learning in pre-school children, with re¬ 
gards to the learning of vocabulary and the acquisition of 
an understanding of the language. However, chronological 
































V 


age did not correlate with learning of pronunciation. 

2. Parental attitude was found to be a crucial factor 
in second language learning by pre-school children. 

3. Success of pre-school children in second language 
learning was closely related to the degree to which 
that language was found in their homes. 

The above findings suggest that pre-school children are 
able to learn a second language and the older the child is the 
more able he will be to learn the vocabulary and grasp an under¬ 
standing of the second language. Learning of correct pronuncia¬ 
tion, however, is not dependent on the age of pre-school children. 
Favorable parental attitude towards the culture of the second 
language and the influence of the second language in the home also 
facilitate second language learning in pre-school children. 























































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vi 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM. 1 

(1) Introduction. 1 

(2) Problem. 5 

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. 7 

(1) Introduction. 7 

(2) Chronological Age. 7 

(3) Attitude. 13 

(4) Cognitive Level. 17 

III. DEFINITIONS, POSTUALTES AND HYPOTHESES. 19 

(1) Definitions. 19 

(2) Postulates. 20 

(3) Hypotheses. 21 

IV. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. 23 

(1) The Sample. 23 

(2) Tests. 23 

(3) Procedure. 32 

(4) Analysis. 34 

V. RESULTS. 37 

(1) Results Obtained Using PERSUB. 37 

(2) Results Using Pearson Product-Moment 

Correlations. 40 







































vii 

CHAPTER PAGE 

VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS.50 

(1) Summary.50 

(2) Findings.51 

(3) Conclusions.52 

(4) Implications for Research.52 

(5) Implications for the Classroom.54 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.55 

APPENDIX A French Translation of the Peabody 

Picture Vocabulary Test.63 

APPENDIX B Attitude Scale.65 

APPENDIX C French Influence in the Home Inventory.. 73 

APPENDIX D Home Interview.76 

APPENDIX E Raw Data.84 

APPENDIX F Correlations Matrix.90 














































































































viii 


LIST OF TABLES 

TABLE PAGE 

I. Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficients Showing 

the Variance Contributed by Each Factor. 38 

II. Correlations which were Higher than those Between 

the Attitude Scale and the Peabody Test. 41 

III. Clinical Rating of Parental Attitude Towards French 

Culture as Correlated with Three Predictors. 42 

IV. Correlations Between Socio-Economic Status and 

Achievement in French. 43 

V. Correlations Between Socio-Economic Status and 

Three Predictors of the Amount of French found 
in the Home. 44 

VI. Correlation Between French Influence in the Home and 

Achievement in French. 45 

VII. Correlations Between Chronological Age and 

Achievement in French. 45 

VIII. Correlation Between Cognitive Level and Achievement 

in French. 46 

IX. Correlations Between Verbal Ability and Achievement 

in French. 47 

X. Correlations Between Sex and Achievement in French 49 
















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IX 


LIST OF FIGURES 


FIGURE PAGE 

1. The Distribution of I.Q. Scores. 24 

2. The Distribution of C.A. Scores. 25 

3. The Distribution of Blishen Index Scores. 26 


4. The Distribution of French Influence in the Home 


Scores 


27 
































































CHAPTER I 


INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM 

(1) INTRODUCTION 


Don't worry about language while travelling 
abroad; there is always someone who speaks 
English. This advice assumes, of course, 
that you limit your travels to the large 
cities and to high-priced hotels and res¬ 
taurants,. .. . It assumes also that you have 
no interest in attending the theatre, in 
listening to the radio or reading newspapers, 
....Don't worry about language while travel¬ 
ling abroad; language is necessary only for 
understanding human beings. 

William Riley Parker. 

Mr. Parker's words appear to be wise indeed. However, 
he makes one false assumption. That assumption being that one 
will have to go to a foreign country in order to be in the 
situation he describes. In Canada, within the borders of 
Quebec, are more than five million Canadians who speak no, or 
very limited English. On the other hand, the fourteen million 
remaining Canadians speak little or no French. Thus, a person 
from Quebec travelling to other parts of Canada is for all in¬ 
tentional purposes in a foreign country, and the English speak¬ 
ing Canadian travelling to Quebec is in the same unenviable 
position. 


Bilingualism has been one of the dominant themes in 


Canadian history. At the time of confederation is was decided 


















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that Canada should be a bilingual country, with the French and 
English languages sharing an equal role in the nation's affairs. 
However, Canada is now approaching its centennial anniversary 
and as yet is still far from being a bilingual nation. Its 
politicians, with strong emotion, have argued at great length 
as to the blessings and curses of bilingualism, and seem to be 
no nearer agreement than they were 100 years ago. Thus, it 
would appear that to argue for, or against bilingualism would be 
a rather fruitless undertaking. Consequently, this paper will 
avoid this argument, and will work from the assumption that know¬ 
ing more than one language is desirable. 

Tan (1947) has defined four types of bilingualism: 

a. social, a second language is learned because of 
the close association of two people; 

b. political, the minority group is compelled to 
learn the language of the majority group where 
both groups live in the same political unit; 

c. colonial, the conquered majority is compelled 
to learn the language of the conquerors who 
constitute a minority of the population; 

d. cultural, a second language is needed in order 
to learn new ideas written in another language 
(p. 445). 

Tan would probably be rather hard pressed if he were required to 
classify the Canadian situation in one of his categories, for it 
does not appear to be analogous to any of the situations which he 
describes. As the situation exists, Canada is a de jure bilingual 
country, but in point of fact it is composed of two large uni- 
lingual French or English speaking groups, of which only a few 


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members and bilingual. Why does this remain so after nearly 100 
years of nationhood? Are Canadians so stupid that the vast 
majority of them are incapable of learning two languages? Or 
is it because they are a young nation and have not had an 
adequate communication system and teachers to propagate the two 
languages? Perhaps it has been the result of a chauvinistic 
attitude aimed at promoting parochial allegiance to one's ances¬ 
tral language? Lambert (1963) would most likely support the last 
statement. 


... an individual successfully acquiring a 
second language gradually adopts various 
aspects of the behavior which characterize 
members of another linguistic-cultural group. 

The learner's ethnocentric tendencies and his 
attitudes toward the other group are believed 
to determine his success in learning the new 
language (p. 114). 

Furthermore, Singer (1956) maintains that: 

The socio-political conditions under which a 
person acquires a foreign language will tend 
to affect his attitude towards both languages 
... (p. 445). 

Thus, it would appear that despite the fact that French and 
English are not foreign languages in Canada, a person learning 
one of them as a second language probably is greatly affected 
by the social and political situation which produce in him cer¬ 
tain attitudes towards the second language. These attitudes 
then are reflected in the speed and efficiency with which the 
person will learn the second language. 













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A person's attitudes are most flexible in early childhood. 

Moreno (1953) found that when: 

Children in school were asked which of their 
classmates they would like to have seated next 
to them, there was no noticeable "racial" cleav¬ 
age in the first three or four grades; here, 
too, it is evident that prejudice is acquired 
and is not native to the child (p. 514). 

Thus, this is the time when parents and educators can be most 
effective in establishing favorable attitudes in children to¬ 
wards the learning of a second language. If this can be done 
then the child and later the adult will probably approach the 
study of a second language with a favorable attitude, and con¬ 
sequently a greater level of motivation. Williams (1963) be¬ 
lieves that: 

The most important factor in the situation 
appears to be motivation. The Welsh speaking 
child soon realizes that a knowledge of 
English is almost essential for living a satis¬ 
factory social and economic life... (p. 299). 

There is a marked division which exists today between 
French-speaking and English-speaking Canadians with regards to 
bilingualism. If Canada is to become a de facto bilingual 
country this division must be overcome. However, how this will 
be done is a moot question which this study does not intend to 
deal with, but rather will leave it to the politicians to haggle 
over. Since bilingualism is such an important issue in Canada 
as well as in many other nations of the world such as Wales, India, 
and the Soviet Union, it is an appropriate area of scholarly inquiry. 























































































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5 


Therefore, this study will investigate, and try to identify those 
factors which contribute to, or hinder the facility with which a 
person learns a second language. Thus, information will be pro¬ 
vided for those who want to become bilingual, and to foreign 
language teachers, as to the effect which the investigated factors 
have on second language learning. 

(2) PROBLEM 

The purpose of this study is to attempt to identify those 
factors which influence second language learning in children. 

Educators as well as laymen have noted that certain indi¬ 
viduals appear to learn a second language more quickly than do 
others. However, educators have done little to identify those 
factors which influence a person's facility in second language 
learning. At present, studies in the literature concentrate on 
second language learning in adults and older children. However, 
according to Penfield and a commonly held belief among educators, 
young children can learn a second language far more easily than 
adults can. Penfield (1957 ) asserts that: 

Remember that for the purpose of learning 
languages, the human brain becomes pro¬ 
gressively stiff and rigid after the age 
of nine (p. 236). 

Thus, it would follow that the most fruitful area of studying 
second language learning would be with children. Furthermore, 


■ I 3 • >-5 V 


6 


if Lambert's (1963) findings with regard to attitude being so 
important in second language learning is correct, then one 
should concentrate on young children, a group whose attitudes 
are easier to mold. 

This study will deal with such measured variables as 
mental age, chronological age, parental attitude towards French 
culture, French influence in the home, Stanford-Binet vocabulary, 
sex, socio-economic status and their influence on achievement in 
oral French by a group of kindergarten children from the city of 
Edmonton. 




































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CHAPTER II 


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 

(1) INTRODUCTION 

Much speculation has been done in an attempt to account 
for the variability between individuals in their ability to learn 
a second language. This review will be restricted to that liter¬ 
ature in the field of bilingualism which attempts to identify 
those factors involved in individual differences in ability to 
learn a second language. Emphasis will be placed on work done 
by Wilder Penfield, who maintains that neuro-physiological 
maturation is the crucial factor and Wallace Lambert who maintains 
that attitude is the crucial factor involved in second language 
learning. 


(2) CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 


Penfield maintains that a child's brain is specialized to 
the task of language learning. This specialization begins to drop 
off after about age nine and the brain gradually becomes senescent 
insofar as language learning is concerned. 

Penfield (1959) maintains that: 

The infant possesses a speech mechanism but it is 
only a potential mechanism. It is a clean slate, 
waiting for what that infant is to hear and see 
(p. 238). 
























































































































































8 


Thus, if one does not take advantage of the child's special 
ability to learn languages, and teach him a second language 
when he is young, the advantage which he has is lost. 

According to Penfield the direct method of language 
learning is the correct method, for it is based on the pro¬ 
cedure by which the child is taught to speak by its mother. 

The direct method is based on the maturation of the brain. The 
intuition to learn language is thus inner directed rather than 
externally directed and is the same regardless of the number of 
languages to be learned. Penfield turns to neuro-physiology to 
support his position. He maintains that the immigrant child who 
picks up the local language quickly, while his parents fail to 
learn it, is an example of the specialized function of the child's 
brain, which makes him particularly apt at language learning. 
Penfield also sites cases of complete transfer of speech from one 
hemisphere of the brain to another, which occurs in childhood if 
the hemisphere in which speech is centered is damaged. Injuries 
of this kind which occur in adulthood often result in the injured 
pefson never recovering his speech. 

If a person delays learning a second language until ado¬ 
lescence or adulthood, he will approach the learning of a second 
language by using verbal units of his mother tongue. Thus, al¬ 
though he may learn the language, he will probably speak with an 
accent and make many faulty constructions. According to Penfield 







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9 


(1959) this problem results because; 

...he begins to translate, and there is set up 
a new neuro-physiological process; indirect 
language learning (p. 251). 

What Penfield is trying to tell educators is to take the 
physiology of the brain into consideration when teaching 
second languages. 

In an attempt to check the validity of Penfield's 
hypothesis the Modern Language Association sent out a state¬ 
ment, which expressed Penfield’s views, to a number of lead¬ 
ing neurologists and psychiatrists. The purpose of this was 
to see if they agreed with his main contention, that young 
children learn a second language more easily than adults. In 
the newsletter reporting results, the replies of ten neurolo¬ 
gists and three psychiatrists were reported. Seven of the ten 
neurologists were in agreement with Penfield's statement while 
the three psychiatrists did not agree with him. Miel (1954) 
summarized the main issues upon which these men based their 
criticisms. 

1. Generally speaking, childhood is a time when 
language is learned easily, but it is not the 
only time, and in the case of some individuals 
with language difficulty it may be the poorest 
time to introduce a second language. 

2. The foreign language learned in the elementary 
school may be forgotten unless used. 

3. In making a decision on foreign language in the 
elementary school, educators must take into 
account more than ease of acquiring a good accent 
(p. 145). 








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10 


Despite these criticisms the majority of the authorities in the 
field supported his hypothesis. 

Further support for Penfield's hypothesis comes from 

Williams (1963) who reports that: 

Experience in Wales supports the view expressed by 
several neurologists in recent years and endorsed 
by a meeting of experts at Hamburg in April, 1962, 
that the earlier the child is introduced to a 
second language the better, if bilingualism is the 
linguistic aim (p. 299). 

Villegas (1958) maintains that by the time the child has 

entered high school his speech mechanism is set and it is very 

difficult to acquire the proper accent and intonation. He quotes 

Dr. Frances Ilg as saying that: 

The optimum age for beginning the continuous learn¬ 
ing of a second language seems to fall within the 
span of ages four through eight. In this early 
period, the brain seems to have the greatest plas¬ 
ticity for acquiring speech (p.136). 

One cannot help but notice the similarity between the statement of 

Dr. Ilg and Penfield's position. 

Girard (1955) believes that only by starting second language 
teaching in the early grades will a degree of mastery in the language 
be assured. For after the age of twelve children become less able to 
imitate sounds accurately and become self conscious about their per¬ 
formance . 

Hildreth (1959) agrees that children definitely have a pre¬ 
disposition towards second language learning. However, this pre¬ 
disposition exists in the form of a process of acting out and doing 
things with the second language which accounts for their superior 


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11 


performance. 

Andersson (1953) agrees that children learn a second 
language more readily than adults. However, he is very critical 
of language educators for not bringing forth empirical evidence 
to prove their point. 

Persky (1954) maintains that between the ages of six 
and eleven a child can learn another language without being self 
conscious and without analysing it. However, after age twelve 
the process is complicated by his demand for logic and he loses 
his former capacity to be bilingual. 

In view of the above studies it has been rather con¬ 
clusively shown that the time for learning a second language is 
during childhood. However, some studies report that it is the 
ability to learn the oral aspect of the language which children 
are so adept at. 

Bishop (1940) found that well chosen elementary school 
children could progress as fast as, or faster than junior high 
school children, if the oral aspect of language was emphasized. 
Thus, he believes that the elementary school years may well be 
the optimal time for persons to learn the oral aspects of a 
second language. 

Dunkel and Pillet (1956) found that the pronunciation of 
children in their group was on a whole superior to that of an 
adult class given an equal amount of instruction time. Furthermore 






















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12 


there was a marked difference in the types of errors made by the 
two classes. Adults were satisfied with pronunciations which 
were nearly correct and resembled sound patterns in their mother 
tongue. Their errors were usually in the form of carrying 
patterns of pronunciation of their mother tongue over to the 
language which they were learning. Children, on the other hand 
made a wider variety of sound errors, but corrected them more 
quickly to the proper pronunciations by a process of mimicry. 

Hobbs (1953) points out that any decision to include a 
second language in the elementary school should be done in terms 
of the objectives sought. He believes that childhood years are 
the ones in which a person can learn concepts of a second lan¬ 
guage most directly. However, he also believes that in early 
adulthood the individual has the greatest overall learning ability. 

He maintains that if we want to know a second language in order to 
appreciate the writings of another linguistic group, then the em¬ 
phasis in second language learning in high school is correct. 

However, if better communication between various nations, in order 
to improve international relations, is our goal, then it should be 
introduced at the elementary level. 

Most studies have concerned themselves with trying to 
ascertain whether children or adults could learn a second language 
more effectively. It has been shown that children appear to be more 
able, especially with regards to the oral aspects of language learning. 


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13 


The previous studies indicate that the maximum age for effective 
second language learning lies somewhere between nine and twelve 
years of age. Two investigators, Smith and Kaulfers have concerned 
themselves with a somewhat different aspect of the problem. They 
have tried to find out if there is also a minimum age below which 
second language learning is impractical. 

Smith (1949) found that it is unwise to start children who 
were as young as the ones in his sample (37-77 months) in second 
language learning. He came to this conclusion on the basis of their 
performance on a vocabulary test. 

Kaulfers (1952) maintains that if the child can hold his own 
with his peers in his mother tongue then he can safely begin to learn 
a second language. 

Ellert (1953) as well as Girard (1955) believe that educators 
should take advantage of the natural interest present in many chil¬ 
dren to develop codes and secret languages. This can serve as a 
good basis for motivating second language learning. 

(3) ATTITUDE 

Lambert believes that the student's attitude toward the cul¬ 
ture associated with the language he is learning is the crucial factor 
influencing his effective learning of that language. One should not 
be misled by the above emphasis, and adopt the view that Lambert be¬ 
lieves attitude is the only factor which affects second language 


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learning, for this is not the case, he has taken a multi-dimen¬ 
sional approach to the study of bilingualism. 

Lambert maintains that people who have the most favorable 

attitude towards a group whose language they are learning, are the 

ones who will experience the least difficulty in learning the 

language. Support for this position can be found in several studies 

which Lambert has conducted. Some of which were done in Maine, 

Connecticut and Louisiana. Lambert (1963) found that those persons 

with the most favorable attitude towards a given group, experienced 

the least amount of difficulty in learning their language. 

The Maine group had the most favorable attitude 
towards Franco-American heritage and as a result 
they were the ones most proficient in French 
(p. 118). 

In contrast it was found that in Louisiana, where the attitude to¬ 
wards French was much more negative than in Maine, French was sur¬ 
viving far less well. Furthermore, it was discovered that persons 
of a bilingual or bicultural heritage tended to remain identified 
with one culture or the other or else be alienated from both. 
However, those who became bilingual were less prejudiced and main¬ 
tained a favorable attitude towards both groups. When dominance 
of one or another of the bilingual languages was found it was be¬ 
lieved that this was probably due to a more favorable attitude to¬ 
wards that cultural group. This difference can be accounted for in 
terms of how one learns one's first language. Lambert (1963) found 
that, as in the learning of a first language, learning of a second 


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language is strongly influenced by the significant persons in 
one's life. 


Language learning is motivated by a basic 
desire to be like valued people in one's 
environment (p. 115). 

One's degree of success at a task is largely a function 
of one's desire to do well at the task. Therefore it is reason¬ 
able to assume that this would also be true of language learning. 
Studies conducted by Tireman (1961) at the University of New 
Mexico have shown that: 

Desire with which a person approaches the 
learning of a second language is important, 
in his probable success in it (p. 310). 

Williams (1963) and Jones (1954) lend support to Tireman's 

position. Lambert is more refined in this area and divides desire 

to learn a second language, into two types of orientations. First, 

an instrumental orientation, which is the learning of a language for 

some practical use, such as obtaining a job. The second orientation 

is an integrative one, in which one learns the language because he 

wants to become a part of the culture of which the language is a part. 

Lambert (1963) points out: 

...students integratively oriented were the 
more successful in second language learning 
as contrasted with those instrumentally 
oriented (p. 115). 

Furthermore, in the same article it is demonstrated that: 

French skills, whose development depended on 
the use of language in a communication setting, 



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was determined solely by measures of an integra¬ 
tive motivation to learn French (p. 115). 

Thus, the integrative motivation which is a reflection of a more 

positive attitude, is a better indicator of successful learning 

of French. 

One does not exist in a vacuum, and his behavior insofar 

as second language learning is concerned is reflected in his 

adjustment to his primary cultural group. Lambert (1963) found 

that the serious scholar of a second language will become more and 

more alienated from his group as he becomes more seriously involved 

in the learning of another language. 

A study conducted at McGill has shown that many 
serious students of French at McGill experience 
a sensation of anomie with regards to their 
original cultural group (p. 114). 

Lambert's position, however, is somewhat weak for he neglected an 
important factor in his study, that is the degree to which those who 
became serious students of French were already alienated from their 
culture when they began to study French. 

The learning of a second language is closely related 

to one's family associations. Studies have shown that parental 

attitudes towards French is a more important factor in learning 

French than is the level of French used in the home. Lambert (1963) 

found that students who have parents with positive attitudes towards 

French tended to share this attitude with them. 

Students with integrative dispositions to learn 
French had parents who also were integrative and 


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•03 .i: to v- i i fcrf ;** . 'j / m ' S 9 • > ^rcO 

jc (£■ '■ ) 3 „<?,•■* T .< Vi.- - c -Siri' : C n - ,3 tfi.b, 

bfTB 910(13 

3 : r. • : ' 

n - >d i ;!' iw907T 3 ■ . , , j ' 1 '■ .fSduK J 

b: ' ji vIbboIo a sg&uprrBl br.oc & :o . xiini^si £i*l 

iori srl3 ,'t x'- to-'I. • i ; ,V9 > 9 3 



17 


sympathetic to the French Community, (p. 116). 

Closely related to the influence of parental attitudes concern¬ 
ing French upon the learning of French by their children, is the 
influence of the socio-economic status of the family upon the 
learning of French. It appears that persons from families of 
upper socio-economic status are more interested in second lan¬ 
guage learning. Support for this position was found by Anisfeld 
and Lambert (1963) in a study of Jews in Montreal. 

Jones (1949) lends support to Lambert's emphasis on atti¬ 
tudes. He found that there was a significant sex difference in 
second language learning in favor of girls. He concludes that 
this difference results from the girls having a more favorable 
attitude towards the second language. 

In view of the support given to the superiority of children 
in language learning, it is strange that Lambert has restricted his 
studies primarily to adult and adolescent groups. Only once did he 
deal with children, and they were ten and eleven year olds, who 
according to Penfield have entered a stage of senescence as far as 
language learning is concerned. 

(4) COGNITIVE LEVEL 

Hobbs (1955) reports that many studies show positive re¬ 
lationships between common measures of intelligence and achievement 
in a second language. On the whole these correlations are similar 



















:sa -a* i ' -- 3 - 




















































































18 


to those usually obtained between intelligence and academic 
success, .50. Furthermore, he maintains that there are 
studies reporting similar correlations for aural comprehen¬ 
sion. This being true the higher the mental age of the child 
the more effectively he will be able to learn a second language. 
Therefore, following these findings it would be logical to delay 
the teaching of a second language until the upper grade levels. 

Dunkel and Pillet (1957) have found correlations between 
intelligence and achievement in second language learning which 
are rather contradictory to those of Hobbs. They have found 
correlations of .28 between intelligence and second language 
achievement. 

Olson (1962) found that verbal intelligence tests are 
more highly correlated with academic achievement than are non¬ 
verbal intelligence tests. Thus, one would expect to find a 
higher correlation between second language achievement, an academic 
subject, and performance on the verbal portiori of the test rather 
than between second language achievement and the total intelligence 
test. 

The foregoing review of the literature clearly points to a 
gap in research dealing with second language learning. That gap is, 
what effect does attitude have upon the ability of young children to 
learn a second language? 









































































CHAPTER III 


DEFINITIONS, POSTULATES AND HYPOTHESES 
(1) DEFINITIONS 

1. Bilingualism : For our purpose we may say that it describes 
the language behavior of an individual who possesses a 
mother tongue and also another language, in whole or in part. 
This implies that bilingualism is not necessarily a state 
eventually arrived at after long experience in a second lang¬ 
uage. Rather, it is a cumulative process built up gradually 
as one language is held in abeyance while the other functions. 
As soon as an individual can play his part authentically in a 
situation involving the new language (this means of course, 
without reference to the mother tongue) he is to that extent 
bilingual (Brooks 1964). 

2. Culture : A system of socially acquired and transmitted stan¬ 
dards of judgment, belief, and conduct as well as the symbolic 
and material products of the resulting conventional patterns 
of behavior (Lundberg, e_t _al. 1963) . 

3. French Achievement : 

a. The degree to which an individual's raw score on a French 
translation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test has 
changed over a four month period of time. 











: j r'T-^-no 


\< ■ • • ■ , . V ' ... 


won i (i) 


3 s<?o 0 :i' :• .brri rrs o >.. f\ 3 * • • >- 

.. .,£ 1 

. ' i. 1 • . , 0 - 3 0 9lil ‘ t*. ( 










airs»;l3fc%j :c ; r. O ; ac-a .o . iJ o ;l ;0 :: r.j .3 r; ba-i 




















20 


b. The degree to which an individual's understanding of 
French has improved over a four month period of time 
as measured by the classroom teacher. 

c. The degree to which an individual's ability to pro¬ 
nounce French sounds has improved over a four month 
period of time as measured by the classroom teacher. 

4. Intelligence : The mental age score as measured by the Stanford 
Binet Intelligence Scale, Form L-M. 

5. Socio-Economic Status : The score attained on the Blishen Index 
(Blishen 1958). 

6. French Influence in the Home : The score attained on the French 
Influence in the Home Inventory, which was designed for this 
purpose. 

7. Parental Attitude Towards the French Culture : The score 
attained on the attitude scale developed for this purpose. 

8. Verbal Ability: Score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 
Form L-M, vocabulary section. 

(2) POSTULATES 

1. Neurological maturation is a necessary precondition for second 
language learning. 

2. Learning of a second language is a function of cognitive level 
as assessed by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Form L-M. 







.isrf.- ^33 mcc, seal. .' rL \d • **••• ’ 

-oiq o3 Iide 3' It jbivifc. 

4 

-biodnft33 3ri? (6 h iua s- as 

,(8c91 iia/teiia) 

bnr»ose ioi a' il, ,oot :o ' • 3 9 Jan a t r :»j -1 a a. oioiusPl 

F-J nrto .dl&a£ s' r;r* r U s rrl 3sni& b o*(!AJ 3 f v 









21 


3. Learning of a second language by children is a function of 
environment, specifically parental pressure to achieve and 
parental attitude toward the culture of the second language. 

(3) HYPOTHESES 

1. Cultural factors will be associated with the degree of achieve¬ 
ment in French. 

a. The variable having the highest correlation with French 
achievement will be parental attitude towards French cul¬ 
ture . 

b. Children having an upper socio-economic background will 
exhibit a greater degree of French achievement than chil¬ 
dren from a lower socio-economic background. 

c. The greater the influence of French in the home, the greater 
the French achievement. 

2. Neuro-physiological maturation will be associated with the 
degree of achievement in French. 

a. There will be a greater imprdvement in French achievement 
found among older members of the class than among younger 
members of the class. 

3. There will be a positive relationship between cognitive level 
and achievement in French. 

4. Verbal ability will be associated with the degree of achieve¬ 


ment in French. 


' 

I 

; >.)2 9 o a. ■ ‘ - •• o • i.'i: ■ 

rio< ■ . , r t to t -t;;j %,-• ‘ < ■ - x , r . B 

* , • fc •• no aio ■ , . • 

S' - • '• •’ - 1 . • ■ . ! "A , • .3 ,, - . - 

« 


22 


a. Those children having the greater verbal ability will 
show a greater improvement in French achievement. 

b. There will be a greater improvement in French achieve¬ 
ment among girls than among boys. 

















































































CHAPTER IV 


EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 

(1) THE SAMPLE 

The sample consisted of 33 children, 11 males and 22 
females. They were enrolled in a French language kindergarten, 
operated by the Sisters of the Assumption, in the city of 
Edmonton. Although this institution was operated by a Catholic 
organization, enrollment was not restricted to Catholics, and 
several non-Catholic students were enrolled. Furthermore, 
although the kindergarten was located in an older section of 
the city, it drew its students from all portions of the city, 
thus, the sample was not restricted to a limited geographical 
area. The following figures demonstrate some of the characteris¬ 
tics of the sample. 


(2) TESTS 

The Stanford-Binet, Form L-M (1960) was used because it 
has a great deal of appeal to children and is very appropriate to 
the group we were dealing with. Furthermore, its division into 
half-year groupings during pre-school ages takes into account the 
rapid growth in intelligence that takes place during this age period. 

At ages 2-6 to 5-7, the reliability coefficients range from .83 to .91. 






















































• ■ . ■ . 



























*h'i 00 

r 
























24 























































25 





71-73 













































































































*7*TO+7 


26 



Blishen Index 

X: 63 .ll 
S.D.: 13.32 

FIGURE 3 


The Distribution of Blishen Index Scores 












27 



French Influence in the Home 

X: 4.70 

S.D.s 3.77 

FIGURE 4 

The Distribution of French Influence in the Home Scores 













28 


The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (1959) was selected 
because of it appropriateness to this study. It was designed 
for the purpose of obtaining an estimate of a person's verbal 
intelligence by measuring his hearing vocabulary. 

Three general advantages which it has are as follows: 

It covers a wide range of ability; it provides for a completely 
objective method of scoring; it is completely untimed conse¬ 
quently it is a power rather than a speed test. 

This test is designed so that the pictures the testee 
is presented with are most likely to be in line with his level 
of ability; i.e., the beginning pictures are designed so as to 
be appropriate for young children. Since the subject is not 
required to read, this scale is particularly suited for non¬ 
readers; i.e. pre-school children. Furthermore, the speed in 
administration, 10-15 minutes, plus the interest value it has 
tends to establish good rapport, thus making it particularly 
well suited for use with pre-school children, such as those in 
this study. 

A measure was required of the subjects verbal ability in 
French, so the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was adapted to this 
need. This was done by translating it into French. This 





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i sJBraiTrs n£ gj If v dr o eoqiuq ari3 'to'% 






,. ioj >£ qa a n-d t9*.:= = a I 3i ylin^up 


■ 

•■ i (iiw ;>r; f ni sd on ^1: til Seoni >t , dt r bsdfxa-.a'i'q ei 
a as > ■* 3 > •; f . . ' a .to 

ifstc ,b ■ o t •?» 1 i-q 'Jqqa 9cf 

-non -ol b« Jxuo r i aluo aq s . SJ • . ?.j ij ,1-as- o? botti; p9f 

r: isq tj a &u J t 1 x a* ;t-d ,3a.- od • ci • 3.. 

'>2 * 3 I.5U8 «fT9T .lid' OO 08-F*>. U TO 103 XI9V? 


.ybu. a * 1 


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29 


translation was done by a professor of French from the University 
of Alberta in collaboration with the classroom teacher. (See 
appendix A). 

The Blishen Occupation Class Scale (1958) was used 
because it is the best available scale to give us a measure of 
socio-economic level in the Canadian situation. This scale is 
based on the 1951 Canadian Census and classifies occupations on 
a variety of characteristics, income and years of schooling 
being of primary importance. 

A Scale of Parental Attitude Towards the French Culture 
was designed in the following way. An initial group of thirty- 
seven statements, judged to be relevant to attitude towards French 
culture was drawn up. These items were administered to two groups 
of first year students in Education: one group of 35 French-speak¬ 
ing students from College St. Jean and one group of 31 English- 
speaking students from the University of Alberta in Edmonton. The 
responses to the items, recorded on separate answer sheets, were: 
Strongly agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, and Strongly Dis¬ 
agree. The responses of the two grdups were compared for dis¬ 
crimination between groups using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov technique. 
Thirty-one of the thirty-seven items were found to discriminate 
between the French-speaking and English-speaking groups. It was 
assumed that the differences between groups showed a difference in 
attitude towards the French culture, as exhibited by French-speaking 






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jtocj d ‘ r 1 • J awe ^ -o ao 

o r. DOO | ji3j I? £ =» ibi • V J ' ri'J * OBBrJ 

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30 


and English-speaking Albertans. In summary, this attitude scale 
was designed following the pattern outlined by the standard 
Likert method of attitude scale construction, (Adams 1964). 

The scoring technique used on this attitude scale was 
as follows: Those items of the scale that discriminated between 
the French-speaking and English-speaking groups were examined in 
order to determine the direction of the difference between groups. 
Adjacent cells were combined so that no expected cell frequencies 
of less than one and no more than one cell per item with an expec¬ 
ted frequency of less than five were included. Chi-square values 
were then computed for each item. 

The scoring was determined by examining the cells in the 
chi-square contingency tables. A score of 2 was assigned to re¬ 
sponses given primarily by the French-speaking group, a score of 0 
to responses given primarily by the E r lish-speaking group, and 
scores of 1 to responses falling in between. For some items it was 
not deemed appropriate to give scores of 1 to any response. (See 
appendix A). 

French Influence in the Home was determined by a home 
interview. These interviews were conducted in order to establish 
the degree to which the individual child had the opportunity to come 
in contact with French in his home. (See appendix C). 

Rating of Integrative Orientation (Lambert 1960), was ob¬ 


tained by having parents rate, on a seven point scale, the extent to 




, 






31 


which four integrative reasons for studying French were descrip¬ 
tive of the reasons why they wanted their child to learn French. 
(See appendix D). 

Rating of Instrumental Orientation (Lambert 1960), was 
obtained by having parents rate, on a seven point scale, the 
extent to which four instrumental reasons for studying French 
were descriptive of the reasons why they wanted their child to 
learn French. (See appendix D). 

Achievement in Aural French (Lambert 1959) , was measured 
by the kindergarten teacher, who ranked each student on a seven 
point scale, representing the amount of improvement which she 
believed the child had made, with regard to understanding French, 
during the four month period of the study. 

Achievement in Oral French (Lambert 1959), was measured 
by the kindergarten teacher, who ranked each student on a seven 
point scale, representing the amount of improvement which she be¬ 
lieved the child had made, with regard to French pronunciation, 
during the four month period of the study. 

Degree of Nationalism was obtained by means of a home in¬ 
terview with the child's mother. On the basis of the parent's 
responses to a series of topics related to Canadian affairs, she 
was assigned a rating. (See appendix D). 

Degree of Prejudice was obtained by means of a home inter¬ 
view with the child's mother. Ratings were assigned on the basis 










r 

■■■■' ' 

: • - 1 

- *. 

■ • 

- 

- 







32 


of the parent's responses to a series of topics related to French 
individuals (See appendix D). 

(3) PROCEDURE 

The children were brought to the Education Clinic of 
the University of Alberta in two groups. One group came in the 
morning, while the other came in the afternoon. The Stanford- 
Binet Intelligence Scale, Form L-M, was administered to them in 
order to obtain a measure of their mental ages. After this test¬ 
ing period each child was allowed to go to a playroom where his 
teacher and several classmates were located. This was done in 
order that each child would have a rest period between testing 
sessions. After being in the playroom for a while, the child was 
once more taken to a testing cubicle where a French translation 
of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was administered to him, 
in order that a measure of his French vocabulary could be obtained. 

Within the next two weeks every child's mother was contacted 
in order to get a measure of the socio-economic level of the family 
and the amount of French influence present in the home. In every 
case the initial contact was made by telephone. In all cases the 
interviewer attempted to conduct the interview in French, in order 
to get an accurate measure of how fluent the child's mother was in 
French. 

As soon as all the telephone interviews were completed each 
child was given a copy of the Attitude Towards French Culture Scale 
to take home for his parents to complete. There was a one hundred 


t sit&o quotig sfiO . 3«: L ; oig ow3 r. f £ filTsdiA io o 8 vin'J odd 
ioinf>; .1 srfT .noo • s •:.< sn. jo is o 9 J 9, r j i jnoom 

n o; i 03 bo^9l3in tiibft >:i-v J on • ' d ■•jp.rid.gJ:o.:. dsoiS 
-:f89i i r 'i- Ji ': .aagi- f4 ii9c? t > :t . m V l trdboo 

b9w0II.fi s£ v h : o do boii 9 q gnj 

-*w b L i: Ii. ■ . o' i»c< iv • jrl'd r. n : . "o3 

,rclri od bsos^^jin : >j& -jr 

■■ t ; 1 lo l> j , ■ r .2 j J . . , 1.7 £ ds;. *u r.o r.i 

7 3 onoD tBii n, jfeso 




33 


percent return of these scales. 

Four months after the original testing period at the 
Education Clinic of the University of Alberta, the French 
translation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was re¬ 
administered to the children at the kindergarten, in order to 
obtain a measure of the degree to which they had improved in 
French over the four month period. This time the testing was 
done by the author, who is fluent in the French language. A 
further measure of their improvement in French was obtained 
by having their teacher rank them on a seven point scale, show¬ 
ing the degree to which they had improved in aural and oral 
skills over the four month period. 

Immediately following the testing of French ability 
at the kindergarten, the author proceeded to conduct home inter¬ 
views with the children's mothers. These interviews were divided 
into two parts. Part one was a structured interview in which a 
standard set of questions was presented to the mothers to answer. 
This was done in order to get a series of measures on their atti¬ 
tudes towards rather specific items regarding French culture and 
their relationships with it. The second part of the interview 
was unstructured. It had a two-fold purpose. The first was to 
confirm the socio-economic ratings and the degree of French in the 
home ratings, which had been obtained over the telephone. Secondly, 
it attempted, by way of a general discussion of certain key issues 




























o ^ ^ * t 'Xdq 

























































































































34 


regarding French-English relations in Canada, to get a clinical 
estimate of the home attitude towards the French culture. 

(4) ANALYSIS 

The multiple linear regression analysis, developed by Bottenberg 
and Ward (1963), was used to analyze the data accumulated by this 
study. The computer used in this analysis was the IBM 7040, 
located at the University of Alberta computing center. 

The approach is to express a criterion variable as a 
linear combination of a set of predictors, and an error term. 

The aim is to find a set of weights which minimize the sum of 
squares of the elements of the error term. These weights are 
called least square weights. 

To test the hypotheses in this study models similar to 
the following one were used. 

Unrestricted Model: 

Y = aQu-fa^x( l)+a2x(2)+a3x( 3)+ep 

Restricted Model: 

Y= agu+a 2 x(2)+a3x(3)+eR 
Y= criterion vectors 
u= unit vectors 

a n ai a 9 a 9 and aA= least square weights associated with predictor 


e= error vector 


























































































































35 


The deletion of vector x(l) from the unrestricted model 
yields information which tells us whether information in vector 
x(l) significantly improves the prediction of the criterion Y 
in the presence of vectors x(2) and x(3). 

An F statistic*, tests the hypothesis to see that there 
exists no difference in prediction, between that obtained from 
the unrestricted model as compared with that obtained from the 
restricted model. 


PERSUB (Davis 1963) is the name assigned to the computer 
program used in this analysis. It dealt with the following pre¬ 


dictors and criteria. 

Predictors 

1. Parental attitude 
towards French 
culture scale 

2. Chronological age 


Criteria 

1. A French translation 
of the Peabody Picture 
Vocabulary Test 

2. A measure of aural skills 


3. Mental age 3. A measure of oral skills 

In addition to the above analysis Pearson Product-Moment 

Correlations were calculated for a series of additional predictors 
and the same criteria as used above. 

4. Stanford-Binet vocabulary 

5. Blishen Index 

6. Sex 


*See Bottenberg and Ward, page 126. 
























; >V 




i. . ■ ro *r f ' • 






* . f -{i • i : ■ •; '■ • : 






fi .O rill ■ li. 1 




' 1 • h - J • 1 ■> 






• ! 5 HV« Sis : 0/ ■ c C 








36 


7. Home level of French 

8. Integrative orientation 

9. Instrumental orientation 

10. Degree of nationalism 

11. Degree of prejudice 

12. Mother's rating of child's French 

13. Mother's self rating of French 

14. Mother's rating of father's French 

15. Favouritism for European French 

16. Desire for French identity 

17. French acquaintances 

18. I.Q. 

19. Clinical rating of attitude towards French culture. 




















•>r. • 














. 













a 1; i ' ' 



: •_ f "• 1 •' •< i 





v ? :i'-up - ' 




















































CHAPTER V 


RESULTS 

The raw scores and the correlation matrix derived from 
data gathered in this study can be found in appendices E and F. 

(1) RESULTS OBTAINED USING PERSUB 

Table 1 indicates that criterion 1, the French translation 
of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, has squared multiple correla¬ 
tion coefficients (RSQ) which are different from 0 at the P .01 
level of significance. Criterion 1 also accounts for 48.2 per cent 
of the variance. When variable 1, attitude towards French culture is 
partialed out of the unrestricted model associated with criterion 
1, there is a loss of information which is significant at the 
.05^P^.06 level. When attitude is partialed out only 40.8 per cent 
of the variance is explained. Therefore, attitude accounts for 7.4 
per cent of the variance. When variable 2, chronological age, is 
partialed out of the unrestricted model associated with criterion 1, 
there is a loss of information which is significant at the p^: .05 level. 
When chronological age is partialed out 40.1 per cent of the variance 
is explained. Therefore chronological age accounts for 8.1 per cent 
of the variance. When variable 3 mental age, is partialed out of the 
unrestricted model associated with criterion 1, there is no significant 
loss of information. 

Criterion 2, teacher's rating of aural skills has 








































































































































38 


TABLE 1 

SQUARED MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS SHOWING 
VARIANCE CONTRIBUTED BY EACH FACTOR 


Criteria 

Variable Partialed 

Out 

Proportion 
of Variance 
Contributed 
RSQ 

Significance 

F test 


Unrestricted Model 

. 482 

P< .01 


Restricted Models 



1* 

1. Attitude 

.408 

.05< P< .06 


2. C.A. 

.401 

P< .05 


3. M.A. 

.447 

Not sig. 


Unrestricted Model 

.267 

P< .05 


Restricted Models 



2** 

1. Attitude 

.252 

Not sig. 


2. C.A. 

.082 

P<.01 


3. M.A. 

.237 

Not sig. 


Unrestricted Model 

.103 

Not sig. 


Restricted Models 



3*** 

1. Attitude 

.099 

Not sig. 


2. C.A. 

.026 

Not sig. 


3. M.A. 

.087 

Not sig. 


df 1 and 29 


* Peabody Test 

** Aural Skills 

VnViSr Oral Skills 








' v ' 3D r ' • f 






•: • l m . • j- ■ ;r ' ■' 













































es fcn* I ib 


■ •, 























39 


squared multiple correlation coefficients which differ from 0 at 
the P4 .01 level of significance. It also accounts for 26.7 per 
cent of the variance. When variable 2, chronological age, is 
partialed out of the unrestricted model associated with criterion 
2, there is a loss of information which is significant at the 
P 4-01 level. When chronological age is partialed out 8.2 per cent 
of the variance is accounted for. Therefore, chronological age 
accounts for 18.5 per cent of the variance. When variables 1 and 
3 are partialed out of the unrestricted model associated with 
criterion 2, there is no significant loss of information. 

Criterion 3, teacher's rating of oral skills, has squared 
multiple correlation coefficients which do not differ significantly 
from 0 nor do any of the variables when partialed out from the un¬ 
restricted idodel associated with criterion 3 result in any signifi¬ 
cant loss of information. 

Hypothesis la 

The hyposthesis, that the variable having the highest 
correlation with French achievement will be parental attitude towards 
French culture, although not supported by these findings, a trend in 
the predicted direction was present using criterion 1. 

Hypothesis 2a 

The hypothesis, that there will be a greater improvement in 
French achievement found among older members of the class than among 
younger members of the class, is supported by the results obtained 




■ 

. ! ; )TP 1 . 

, '! • .■* O lC '■ 

.. i fc • i •< - • ' ' 

. • i ' 2. 5 i '■ - 

* o 

rl 

. ;; .,1 »' 3.. r-. 'J ■ 0 i r : • ‘ > 




40 


using criteria 1 and 2. 

Hypothesis 3 

The hypothesis, that there will be a positive relation¬ 
ship between cognitive level and achievement in French was not 
supported by these results. 

(2) RESULTS USING PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATIONS 

A further analysis of the data was done using Pearson 
Product-Moment Correlations, in order to verify those hypotheses 
which could not be handled by PERSUB due to the small number of 
cases in our sample. Furthermore, it was hoped that other signi¬ 
ficant variables affecting second language learning would be 
identified. This analysis was very broad in scope and necessarily 
some of the apparent significant relationships which were found 
could be due to chance. Thus,it is necessary to keep this limita¬ 
tion in mind when considering the findings of this study. 

Hypothesis la 

The hypothesis, that the variable having the highest 
correlation with French achievement will be parental attitude to¬ 
wards French culture, does not appear to be supported. 

Table 2 suggests that parental attitude towards the French 
culture, as measured by the attitude scale, may not be as signifi¬ 
cant a factor in second language learning as was hypothesized. 
Correlations in Table 2 suggest that mental age, chronological Age, 
home level of French, mother's level of French and French acquaintan 
ces are more important variables which affect the learning of French 















j- ■ ' f A 

. 

son ytMn t sls sbuili 's sffj d b*-n>a at ( siuOluo 

urorr. jiidj r'&T n' a<rcl3si«TaroD 

'It do. * a i-'' •; •;;£ rrr * q. 1 3or sts aao 




41 


TABLE 2 

CORRELATIONS WHICH WERE HIGHER THAN THOSE BETWEEN 
THE ATTITUDE SCALE AND THE PEABODY TEST 



Predictors 

Peabody Test 

Aural Skills 

Oral Skills 


Mental Age 

.529** 

.171 

.089 

Chronological Age 

.622** 

.463** 

.282 

Stanford-Binet 

Vocabulary 

.381* 

-.125 

-.185 

Home Level of French 

.332* 

.546** 

.530** 

Degree of Nationalism 

.385* 

.288 

.151 

Mother's level of French 

.245 

.430** 

.39 7* 

French Acquaintances 

.530** 

.513** 

.327* 

Clinical Rating of 

Attitude Towards French 
Culture 

.431** 

.719** 

.615** 

Attitude Scale 

. 359* 

.233 

.135 


*Signifleant at the .05 level. 

^^Significant at the .01 level. 






































- - . f ■ ■ - 















































































































































































42 


However, the last three variables mentioned in the above list 
may be a reflection of attitude towards French culture. The 
high correlations found between these three variables in Table 
3, and the clinical rating of parental attitude towards French 
culture would tend to support this view. 

TABLE 3 

CLINICAL RATING OF PARENTAL ATTITUDE TOWARDS FRENCH 
CULTURE AS CORRELATED WITH THREE PREDICTORS 


Predictors 

Clinical Rating 

Home Level of French 

.587** 

Mother's Level of French 

.479** 

French Acquaintances 

.592** 


**Significant at the .01 level. 


The high significant correlations in Table 2, between French 
achievement and the clinical rating of parental attitude towards 
French culture, would appear to indicate that there may be a fault 
in the attitude scale designed to get a measure of parental attitude 
towards French culture. Thus, attitude may in fact still be the 
crucial variable affecting second language learning and that it would 
be presumptuous to reject this hypothesis at this time. 










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43 


TABLE 4 

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND 
ACHIEVEMENT IN FRENCH 


Predictor 

Peabody Test 

Aural Skills 

Oral Skills 

Blishen Index 

-.333* 

-.266 

-.234 


^Significant at the .05 level. 

Hypothesis lb 

The hypothesis, that children having an upper socio¬ 


economic background will exhibit a greater degree of French achieve¬ 
ment than children from a lower socio-economic background, appears 
to be rejected. 

Table 4 leads one to hypothesize that the relationship 
between socio-economic status and achievement in French would be 
in the opposite direction to the original hypothesis. 


















































































































■ f r sc o } 



































44 


TABLE 5 

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND THREE 
PREDICTORS OF THE AMOUNT OF FRENCH FOUND IN THE HOME 


Predictors 

Blishen Index 

Home Level of French 

-.312* 

Mother's Level of French 

-.277 

French Acquaintances 

-.322* 


^Significant at the .05 level. 


In Table 5 correlations between the Blishen Index and 
three predictors, which are highly correlated with achievement in 
French (See table 2) and closely related to the amount of French 
present in the home, were examined, and significant negative 
correlations were found. This suggests that those children from 
lower socio-economic families came from homes which were predominantly 
French. Thus, due to the nature of this sample any rejection of the 
original hypothesis must be qualified in terms of the findings shown 


in Table 5. 















. , i . •• - • "7 ' •' ' ' ^ ' 




























































45 


TABLE 6 

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN FRENCH INFLUENCE IN THE HOME AND 

ACHIEVEMENT IN FRENCH 


Predictor Peabody Test 

Aural Skills 

Oral Skills 

French Influence .322*' 

in the home 

.546** 

.530** 


^Significant at the .05 level. 
^Significant at the .01 level. 

Hypothesis lc 


The hypothesis, that the greater the influence of French 
in the home, the greater the French achievement, is accepted because 
of evidence presented in Table 6. 

TABLE 7 

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND ACHIEVEMENT 

IN FRENCH 


Predictor 

Peabody Test 

Aural Skills 

Oral Skills 

Chronological Age 

.622** 

.463** 

.282 


**Significant at the .01 level. 






























■ 




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46 


Hypothesis 2a 

The hypothesis, that there will be a greater improve¬ 
ment in French achievement found among older members of the class 
was partially verified. 

Table 7 indicates that the Peabody test and the measure of 
aural skills lend strong support to the hypothesis, but the oral 
measure of French does not. This relationship appears to indicate 
that pronunciation of French sounds can be taught more effectively 
to the younger children in this sample than vocabulary and an under¬ 
standing of French. These results are in agreement with those found 
in the analysis using PERSUB, where it was found that oral achievement 
in French was not predicted by chronological age, mental age or parental 
attitude towards the French culture. 

TABLE 8 

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN COGNITIVE LEVEL AND 
ACHIEVEMENT IN FRENCH 


Predictor 

Peabody Test 

Aural Skills 

Oral Skills 

Mental Age 

.529** 

.171 

.089 

** Significant at the .01 

level. 







































































































































47 


Hypothesis 3 

The hypothesis, that there will be a positive relationship 
between cognitive level and achievement in French, seems to be par¬ 
tially supported. 

It appears that the hypothesis is valid with regard to the 
learning of vocabulary. However, it appears to be only moderately 
true in relation to the understanding of French, and is rejected 
with regard to learning French pronunciation. The high level of 
significance of the correlation between mental age and the trans¬ 
lated Peabody test should be taken with a grain of salt, for the 
results of the PERSUB analysis indicate that the presence of the 
vector, mental age, does not significantly improve the prediction 
of criterion 1, the Peabody test. 

TABLE 9 

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VERBAL ABILITY AND 


ACHIEVEMENT IN FRENCH 


Predictor 

Peabody Test 

Aural Skills 

Oral Skills 

Verbal Ability 

. 381* 

-.125 

-.185 


’’^Significant at the .05 level. 

































































48 


Hypothesis 4a 

The hypothesis, that those children having the greater 
verbal ability will show a greater improvement in French achieve¬ 
ment, can neither be accepted nor rejected on the basis of the 
results of this sample. 

The results which appear in Table 9 seem to be somewhat 
contradictory, however, a careful examination of the sample can 
explain the discrepancy. The significant relationship between 
verbal ability and Peabody test scores may be explained in terms 
of a communality which exists between the two tests, in that they 
are both attempting to get a measure of vocabulary. The slight 
negative correlations between verbal ability on the one hand and 
aural and oral skills on the other is probably due to the fact that 
those children from dominantly French homes showed the greatest 
improvement in French achievement. There was also a negative 
correlation of -.312 between home level of French and verbal 
ability. Consequently, in this sample, there would almost have to 
be a negative correlation between French achievement and verbal 


ability. 





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49 


TABLE 10 

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SEX AND ACHIEVEMENT IN FRENCH 


Sex 

Peabody Test 

Aural Skills 

Oral Skills 

Boy 

.081* 

-.169 

-.264 


X A correlation of .292 is needed in order for it to be 
significant at the .05 level. 


Hypothesis 4b 

The hypothesis, that there will be a greater improvement in 
French achievement among girls than among boys, is rejected. 

Table 10, although it has a correlation of .264 between 
girls and oral skills which may point out a trend towards a sex 
linked factor in language learning, clearly demonstrates that there 
is no sex linked factor influencing second language learning with 


regards to this sample. 











































































- 





















































CHAPTER VI 


SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 
(I) SUMMARY 

The purpose of this study was to try and add to the know¬ 
ledge of second language learning. This was done by attempting 
to identify those factors which influence second language learning 
in pre-school children. 

% 

There are marked differences between individuals insofar 
as their ability to learn a second language is concerned. The 
basic problem was identifying those factors which account for 
these differences in performance. 

The sample used in this study consisted of a group of 33 
students from a French language kindergarten. Three criteria of 
achievement in French were used. These were, a French translation 
of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, a measure of aural skills 
and a measure of oral skills. 

A series of measured variables were used and the following 
were the ones upon which the hypothesis of this study were based, 
mental age, chronological age, parental attitude towards French 
culture, French influence in the home, Stanford-Binet vocabulary, 


sex and socio-economic status. 













































)' 8 nr 
















































































51 


(2) FINDINGS 

1. On the basis of the results of the present study the 
hypothesis, that the variable having the highest correlation with 
French achievement would be parental attitude towards French cul¬ 
ture, was rejected. Although attitude was an important variable 
it was not the most important one. 

2. The hypothesis, that children having an upper socio¬ 
economic background would exhibit a greater degree of French achieve¬ 
ment than children from a lower socio-economic background, was rejec¬ 
ted. 

3. The hypothesis, that the greater the influence of French 
in the home, the greater the French achievement, was supported by 
this study. 

4. The results of this study support the hypothesis, that there 
will be a greater improvement in French achievement found among older 
members of the class, when the Peabody test and the measure of aural 
skills were used as criteria. 

5. The hypothesis, that there will be a positive relationship 
between cognitive level and achievement in French, was rejected. 

6. On the basis of the results of this study, the hypothesis 
that those children having the greater verbal ability will show a 
greater improvement in French achievement, was accepted. 












































































52 


7. The hypothesis, that there would be a greater improve¬ 
ment in French achievement among girls than among boys was rejected. 

(3) CONCLUSIONS 

1. Older pre-school children are more able to learn the 
vocabulary and grasp an understanding of a second language than 
are younger pre-school children. However, with regard to pro¬ 
nunciation, younger pre-school children are as able as older ones. 
This is in general agreement with Penfield's position. 

2. A crucial variable influencing second language achieve¬ 
ment of pre-school children is the attitude of their parents to¬ 
wards the culture associated with the second language they are 
learning. Lambert found somewhat similar results in the older age 
group which he studied. 

3. Pre-school children who come from homes where they are 
in contact with the second language by way of books, television 
programs and their parents speaking the language show more improve¬ 
ment in that language at school over a four month period than do 
children who come from homes which provide fewer of the above 
influences. 

4. Mental age is a much poorer predictor of second language 
achievement of pre-school children than is chronological age. 

(4) IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH 

1. In the course of this study it became increasingly clear 
that there was no theory of second language learning. Carroll (1963) 






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53 


also found the same thing. 

Psychologists for their part, have taken little 
interest in problems of foreign-language teach¬ 
ing, and basic learning theory has yet been 
developed to cover the case where alternative 
sets of semantic responses are learned, (p.99). 

Thus, the formulation of a theory of second language learning 
could be a valuable contribution to the study of second lan¬ 
guages. Postulates are needed for each variable believed to be 
significant in affecting language learning. Furthermore, to what 
extent do these variables interact with one another to produce 
certain results. 

2. The conclusions of this study are based on a small sample, 

33 subjects. Future research could test them using a larger sample 
in order to produce more stable statistical results. 

3. The subject of compound and coordinate bilingualism is 
closely related to the age at which the second language is learned. 

It has not been discussed in this study but there is room for much 
further work in this area. Attempting to account for the different 
factors influencing the development of each of these forms of 
bilingualism may yield valuable findings, 

4. Extensive research has been done on the effect of bilingual¬ 
ism on intelligence. As yet no absolute conclusion can be drawn, as 
to whether it hinders or improves intellectual performance. More 
research into this situation as it exists in the Canadian situation 




































Ik 8 i nisiiso 














■ 1 • • i ■ . 











54 


would be of value. 

(5) IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CLASSROOM 

1. The second language curriculum in Alberta schools 

has the aim of getting students to achieve a reading and writing 
knowledge of a second language. In the home interviews conduc¬ 
ted in this study it was found that most parents were interested 
in having their child speak French so that when he travels to a 
foreign country he will be able to communicate in more than one 
language. This kind of grasp of a second language could be 
taught in a kindergarten programme. 

2. Within this sample a more favorable attitude towards 
the culture of the people associated with the second language 
being taught was one of the major factors involved in successful 
learning of that language. This being true, it may be desirable 
to attempt to form positive attitudes towards the culture of the 
people associated with the second language. 


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B I BLIOGRAPHY 





56 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 


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'air f»q3 sli uq 

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y r.I iO . . i ■ : 

'i iS diO'Cd .h •> .iL ,r 2 , . •; -rfivafl 

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. 










































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• . ....... 

- ' • : - 

- 




' 

f S>! , 





























59 


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J i ■ . f ' r i i 

< ' - • • ' 1 

s< • {■ ( • '• • »;• -isfUC -UT 

- _ n . ' -' 

1 h I r'l i : : JS ■ Vi • 
































61 


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APPENDICES 







APPENDIX A 


FRENCH TRANSLATION OF THE PEABODY PICTURE VOCABULARY TEST 





















■ 











































64 


FRENCH TRANSLATION OF THE PEABODY PICTURE VOCABULARY TEST 


Ou est...? 


1. 1'automobile 

2. la vache 

3. le bebe 

4. la fille 

5. la balle 

6. le block 

7. le bouffon 

8. la clef 

9. la boite 

10. la poule 

11. souffler 

12. l'eventail 

13. creuser 

14. la jupe 

15. attraper 

16. le tambour 

17. la feuille 

18. attacher 

19. la cloture 

20. le baton 

21. 1 1 abeille 

22. le buisson 

23. verser 

24. coudre 

25. le chien chaud 

26. la maitresse 

27. construire 

28. la plume 

29. le rat 

30. la montre 

31. le canard 

32. le bicycle 

33. la scie 

34. bucher 

35. l'hamecon 

36. la hache 

37. la pie 

38. le soldat 

39. le carrosee 

40. la selle 

41. la chaudiere 

42. le prisoner 

43. la baleine 

44. le cadeau 

45. ecriver 


























































• ' c . 






.C > 




















APPENDIX B 


ATTITUDE SCALE 
























































66 


DIRECTIONS 

This inventory is designed to sample opinions about French Canadian- 
English Canadian relations. There is considerable disagreement as to what ths 
relations should be; therefore, there are no right or wrong answers. Read ^ach 
statement and decide how YOU feel about it. Then underline the statem nt which 
best expresses your feelings. 



















' ■ 

' 

iraB 

•tc. „TCf 


2 : •. h ,:“ 4 j . . :i3a 



67 


’.lame: 


Underline that alternative which best expresses your attitude towards each statement. 

1. French should be a compulsory subject from grade I to grade XII. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagre 

2. The Canadian law which allows a member of parliament to address the House of 
Commons in either French or English should be changed so that English would be the 
only language that could be used. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 

3. Parents who know how to sneak French should teach their children to sp^ak Frnch. 


Strongly agree 


Agree 


Undecided 


Disagr 


Strongly disagr e 


4. Any Canadian who cannot speak French is not truly a Canadian, 
Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree 


Strongly disagr e 


5. Too much attention, has been given to bilingualism and biculturalism in Canada. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagr e Strongly disagr 


6. French is a useful languag» in today's world. 


n 
w, 


10 . 


12 . 


Strongly agree 


Agr 


Undecided 


Disagree 


Strongly disagree 


Employers in Western Canada exhibit a preference for workrs who can us^ both 


French aid English. 
Strongly agree 


Agree 


Undecid'd 


Disagr e ) 


Strongly disagr e 


Learning a second language, such as French is generally boring, difficult and a 

waste of tim:. 

Strongly agree Agre^ Undecided Disagree Strongly disagr 'e 

9. The ability to speak French as well as the official language of your cou.try is 
the mark of a cultured person. 


Strongly agree 


Agr 


Endecided 


Disagr ^>e 


Strongly disagree 


I would prefer to live in a community which is predominantly French Canadian. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 


11. French Canadians are trying to force other Canadians to 1 ’are French. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagr e 


French is too difficult for childre.. in elementary school to learn. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagr e 

13. Special arrangements should b made in our city so that o'rsons wanti' g th ir chil¬ 
dren to l~arn°French i elementary school would hav the opportunity to do so. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 







. 




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68 


.5. 

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18. 




22 . 


23. 



25. 


26. 

27. 



Children who learn French at home generally do poorer than English speaking chil¬ 
dren when thay attend school in our city. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagr-e 

If parents want French taught to their children th e . they should send th^m to a 
private school. 

Stro gly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 

A person who has learned trench at school is at a disadvantage once h' outers a job. 
Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 

Some customs of the French Canadians are very worthwhile and should be adopt d by 
other Canadians. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagr e 

If the Critish had been clever they would ! 0T hav e given th : French any rights wh r. 
they conquered them. Thus, we would have no problem with th m today 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagr e Strongly disagree 

French Canadians should be proud of their ancestry. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Stror.ly disagr 


When possible children should be taught to speak French in ^arly childhood. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagr e 

Most French Canadians are rather uneducated and ignora t. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 

French Canadians feel that they are superior to English Canadians. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 


Most French Canadians are not too ambitious. 
Strongly agree Agree Undecided 


Disagr e 


Strongly disagree 


French Canadians feel that they deserve special treatment. 
Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagre: 


Strongly disagree 


All federal government civil servants should be able to speak French. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 


A person who can speak French as well as English is a better educated person, than 
a person who speaks only English. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 

Canada should forget its French background and become an English speaking country 
Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 

French Canadians should be more concerned about learning to so^ak English corr ctly 
rather than getting English speaking persons to speak Fr-nch. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 







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29, It would be desirable if all Canadians could speak. French. 

Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 

30. French should NOT have equal status with English in Canada since only 33% of all 
Canadians are of French descent. 


Strongly agree Agree 

Undecided 

Disagree 

Strongly disagree 

I like French Canadians, 

Strongly agree Agree 

Undecided 

Disagree 

Strongly disagree 











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70 


B. KOLMOGORO-SMIRNOV TEST OF INITIAL ATTITUDE SCALE ITEMS 


Item Number 

Chi Square 

Item Number 

Chi Square 

1 

20.58** 

19 

1.06 omitted 

2 

25.38** 

20 

8.32* 

3 

31.50** 

21 

21.68** 

4 

16.11** 

22 

26.52** 

5 

22.45** 

23 

21.96** 

6 

6.64* 

24 

14.99** 

7 

28.64** 

25 

11.46** 

8 

9.71** 

26 

6.42* 

9 

11.01** 

27 

9.34** 

10 

0.22 omitted 

28 

23.60** 

11 

17.83** 

29 

14.07** 

12 

14.99** 

30 

44.74** 

13 

21.96** 

31 

2.58 omitted 

14 

15.22** 

32 

14.30** 

15 

7.20* 

33 

20.58** 

16 

4.10 omitted 

34 

10.13** 

17 

10.23** 

35 

0.35 omitted 

18 

14.99** 

36 

21.19** 


^Significant at the .05 level. 
^Significant at the .01 level. 






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71 


C. CHI SQUARE AND SCORING VALUES FOR ATTITUDE SCALE ITEMS SELECTED 


Item Number 

Chi Square 

S.A. 

A. 

Scoring Values 

U. 

D. 

S.D, 

1 

23.37** 

2 

1 

0 

0 

0 

2 

30.73** 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2 

3 

29.30** 

2 

0 

0 

0 

0 

4 

22.78** 

2 

2 

1 

1 

0 

5 

28.33** 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2 

6 

15.47** 

2 

1 

0 

0 

0 

7 

30.52** 

2 

2 

1 

0 

0 

8 

10.05** 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

9 

15.09** 

2 

1 

0 

0 

0 

11 

18.82** 

2 

2 

2 

1 

0 

12 

15.35** 

0 

0 

0 

2 

2 

13 

21.96** 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

14 

15.35** 

2 

0 

0 

0 

0 

15 

7.23* 

0 

0 

0 

2 

2 

17 

9.65** 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2 

18 

15.35** 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

20 

10.05** 

2 

2 

0 

0 

0 

21 

20.64** 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2 

22 

26.62** 

2 

0 

0 

0 

0 

23 

37.98** 

2 

1 

0 

0 

0 

24 

15.91** 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2 

25 

13.20** 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

26 

8.12* 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2 

27 

10.85** 

0 

0 

1 

2 

2 

28 

24.16** 

2 

2 

0 

0 

0 

29 

10.05** 

2 

2 

0 

0 

0 

30 

47.04** 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2 

32 

16.80** 

0 

0 

1 

2 

2 

33 

24.08** 

2 

2 

1 

0 

0 

34 

17.87** 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2 

36 

32.99** 

2 

1 

0 

0 

0 


*Significant at the .05 level. 

**Signifleant at the .01 level. 








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72 


D. EXAMPLES OF SCORING TECHNIQUE USED FOR ATTITUDE SCALE 


Item Number 1 

S.A. 

A. 

U. 

D. 

S.D. 

French Speaking 

14 

18 

1 

2 

0 

English Speaking 

3 

8 

2 

13 

5 

Score 

2 

1 

0 

0 

0 


Item Number 28 

S.A. 

A. 

U. 

D. 

S.D. 

French Speaking 

13 

17 

3 

2 

0 

English Speaking 

4 

4 

4 

13 

6 

Score 

2 

2 

0 

0 

0 














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APPENDIX C 


FRENCH INFLUENCE IN THE HOME INVENTORY 






74 


A. FRENCH INFLUENCE IN THE HOME INVENTORY 
I. OUTLINE OF THE HOME INTERVIEW 

1. Occupation of husband (specific) 

2. French level of the home: 

A. Mother's fluency in French. 

B. Amount of French used in the home. 

C. French magazines in the home. 

D. French radio programs listened to. 

E. French T.V. programs children watch. 

F. French story books in the home. 

G. French or English church attended. 

II. Rating Scale 
1. Occupation of husband: 

A. Ranked according to the Blishen index to get a measure 
of socio-economic status. 

B. French level of the home: 

A. Mother's ability to use French: 

a. Nil-0 

b. Understand-2 

c. Fluent-4 

B. Amount of French spoken to children: 

a. Nil-0 

b. Occasionally-2 


c. Always-4 


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c. 

French 

magazines (one or more) 

- 1 

D. 

French 

radio (listen at all) 

- 1 

E. 

French 

T.V. (Chez Helene) 

- 1 

F. 

French 

books (one or more) 

- 1 

G. 

French 

church attended 

- 1 


Weighted scores gathered on the 

basis of the above rating 


scale. 




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APPENDIX D 


HOME INTERVIEW 







' • r. •. , 



77 


A. STRUCTURED HOME INTERVIEW (PART I) 


Read each statement carefully and indicate the extent to which it 
is descriptive of your reasons for having your child study French. 

I. Integrative orientation ; 

1. It will help him to understand better the French people and 
their way of life. 

not my feeling definitely 

at all _: _:_:_:_:_:_:my feeling 

2. It will enable him to gain good friends more easily among French 
speaking people. 

not my feeling definitely 

at all_:_:_:_:_:_:_:my feeling 


3. It should enable him to begin to think and behave as the French do. 

not my feeling definitely 

at all _:_:_:_:_:_:_:my feeling 


4. It will allow him to meet and converse with more and varied people. 

not my feeling definitely 

at all _:_:_:_:_:_: _:my feeling 


II. Instrumental orientation : 

1. I think it will some day be useful in getting a good job 

not my feeling definitely 

at all _:_:_:_:_:_:_:my feeling 

One needs a good knowledge of at least one foreign language to merit 
social recognition. 

not my feeling definitely 

at all :_:_:_:_:_:_:my feeling 


2 . 

























































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78 


3. I feel that no one is really educated unless he is fluent in 
the French language. 

not my feeling definitely 

at all_:_:_:_:_:_:_:my feeling 

4. It will be of value in finishing high school. 

not my feeling definitely 

at all_:_:_:_: : _:my feeling 

III. Rating o f Mother's French Skills : Check the following statement 
which best applies to you. 

I speak French: not at all_ a little_ fairly well_ fluently_ 

I read French: not at all_ a little_ fairly well_ fluently_ 

I write French: not at all_ a little_ fairly well_ fluently_ 

IV. Rating of Father's French Skills : Rate your husband's French skills 
in the same way as above. 

He spealfe French:not at all_ a little_ fairly well_fluently_ 

He reads French:not at all_ a little_ fairly well_fluently_ 

He writes French: not at all_ a little_ fairly well_fluently_ 

V. Rating of Child's French Skill : Rate your child's French skill in 
the same way as above. 

He speaks French: not at all_ a little_ fairly well_fluently 

VI. Reinforcements for Speaking European French : 

1. If your child spoke French at home the way the European French 
speak it, or as his teachers speak it, what would be the re¬ 
actions of: 

a. His parents__ 

b. His brothers and sisters_ 

c. His close French-Canadian friends_ 





























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79 


VII. Desire for French Identity : 

1. Do you think there should be a French T.V. channel in 
your district? 

Definitely Don't see the need for 

yes _:_:_rone 

2. Are most of your close friends French or English-speaking? 

Mostly French_:_:_: Mostly English 

3. Would you prefer to have neighbours who are French or 
English speaking? 

a. Prefer French-speaking Canadians_ 

b. Indifferent_ 

c. Prefer English-speaking Canadians_ 

4. Do you want your children to grow up speaking French? 

Yes_ No_ 

VIII. French Acquaintances : 

Do you know any French-speaking people?_About how many_ 

Are any of these really good friends?_ 

How friendly are you with them? _ 





















' 

i . . . 

- ; _ ■ ■ ' 























80 


B. HOME INTERVIEW RATING SCALE (PART I) 

1. Responses in sections I and II were assigned ordinal numbers 
from one to seven, and increasing from left to right. 

2. Responses to items in sections III, IV and V were assigned 
ordinal numbers from one to four, increasing from left to 
right. 

3. Responses to items in section VI were grouped and assigned 
ordinal numbers on the following basis: 

a. In favour or European French - 6 

b. Indifferent - 3 

c. In favour of Canadian French - 0 

4. Responses in section VII were assigned ordinal numbers from 
one to three, for items one to three. 

a. In items one and two the ordinal numbers Increased in size 
from left to right. 

b. Ordinal numbers in item three increased from top to bottom. 

c. Item four was assigned a score of two for a response of yes 
and a score of one for a response of no. 

5. Responses in section VIII were assigned ordinal numbers on the 
following basis: 

a. A few French-speaking friends - 1 

b. Most friends French-speaking - 2 

c. Casual French-speaking friends- 1 

d. Good French-speaking friends - 2 












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81 


C. UNSTRUCTURED HOME INTERVIEW (PART 2) 
ITEMS REGARDING THE CHILD 


1. What do you feel is your child's attitude towards attending 
kindergarten? 

2. What do you believe your child's attitude is towards learning 
French? 

3. How have you responded to your child's learning of French? 

4. Has your child progressed well in kindergarten? 

ITEMS REGARDING THE PARENT 

1. Discuss what influenced you to send your child to a French 
kindergarten? 

2. Since your child has been in kindergarten, has your attitude 
towards teaching young children another language been altered? 

3. Do you plan to have your child continue to take French? 

4. French kindergartens appear very popular, Why? 

5. Are our school systems adequately providing for the instruction 
of students in a second language? 

6. Does your husband agree with your notions on the child's learning 
of a second language? 

7. Is knowledge of both French and English becoming the mark of a 
cultured person in Canadian society? 

8. Discuss the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, 

and its implications. 

a. New flag. 

b. Bilingual civil service. 

c. French in school (grade one and up?) 




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82 


d. Minority groups and their language rights in the public 
school systems. 

e. Do you want to see Canada as an ethnic melting pot? 

9. Separatist Issue: 

a. Have they a just grievance? 

b. Will Quebec seceed from the union? 

c. Quebec is in favour of teacher exchange with France. 

Do we want more of France? Alternative to this? 

10. Confirm socio-economic status. 

D. HOME INTERVIEW RATING SCALE (PART 2) 

1. Nationalistic Scale: High score corresponds to a high degree 
of nationalism. 

8a. No - 1 point 

Yes - 2 points 

f. No - 1 point 

Yes, but maintain ethnic background - 2 points 
Yes, under all circumstances - 3 points 
9b. Yes, - 1 point 

I hope not - 2 points 
No - 3 points 

2. Prejudice Scale" High score corresponds to a high degree of 
prejudice in favour of French. 

8b. No - 1 point 

Yes, but not in all areas - 2 points 
Yes - 3 points 


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d. Yes, definitely - 1 point 

Have rights where they are in a majority - 2 points 
No, definitely - 3 points 
9b. No - 1 point 

Perhaps - 2 points 
Yes - 3 points 
c. No good - 1 point 

Indifferent - 2 points 
Good - 3 points 

Other items on the scale were grouped and a clinical 
rating was given on the basis of the degree to which the home 
exhibited a favourable attitude towards the French culture. 

Homes were assigned ordinal ratings from one to four, the higher 
number representing the more favourable attitude. 













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APPENDIX E 


RAW DATA 






1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 


85 


M.A, in C.A. in Sex S-Binet Blishen 
Months Months Vocabu- Index 

lary 


67 

64 

M 

6 

82.5 

72 

65 

M 

7 

57.7 

65 

67 

F 

8 

50.2 

57 

56 

F 

3 

50.2 

59 

52 

F 

4 

45.6 

57 

39 

F 

4 

57.7 

78 

71 

F 

7 

75.0 

46 

50 

F 

0 

78.0 

82 

62 

M 

8 

78.0 

65 

56 

F 

5 

82.5 

67 

61 

F 

9 

67.7 

43 

57 

F 

0 

43.2 

68 

68 

M 

4 

43.2 

62 

54 

F 

2 

75.2 

66 

66 

F 

7 

54.2 

40 

47 

F 

0 

56.7 

62 

60 

F 

4 

48.2 

92 

67 

M 

8 

78.8 

59 

58 

M 

6 

82.5 

86 

69 

M 

8 

82.5 

68 

61 

M 

5 

45,4 

67 

68 

F 

2 

56.0 

67 

68 

F 

4 

56,7 

75 

62 

F 

7 

50.4 

72 

62 

F 

6 

62.2 

73 

59 

M 

6 

67.7 

60 

66 

M 

2 

78.8 

63 

63 

F 

1 

49.8 

69 

66 

F 

5 

70.0 

49 

51 

F 

2 

82.5 

83 

67 

F 

6 

58.2 

76 

61 

M 

7 

57.0 

59 

50 

F 

5 

58.2 












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86 


Home Level 
of French 

French 

Attitude 

Scale 

Integrative 

Orientation 

Instrumental 

Orientation 

Degree of 
Nationalism 

11 

41 

14 

15 

7 

05 

32 

19 

14 

6 

01 

19 

13 

15 

5 

01 

19 

13 

15 

5 

06 

21 

17 

13 

7 

01 

30 

21 

16 

7 

01 

53 

24 

10 

8 

08 

37 

18 

16 

6 

08 

37 

18 

16 

6 

01 

15 

22 

15 

7 

03 

39 

16 

09 

5 

11 

40 

22 

14 

6 

11 

39 

21 

13 

6 

01 

31 

20 

13 

7 

07 

49 

26 

22 

7 

01 

27 

25 

13 

6 

07 

55 

25 

22 

7 

01 

30 

19 

14 

8 

01 

50 

20 

14 

6 

01 

30 

20 

14 

6 

06 

31 

25 

11 

8 

11 

25 

22 

16 

8 

09 

49 

10 

10 

7 

oa 

40 

22 

10 

4 

01 

23 

19 

10 

7 

02 

15 

24 

10 

6 

01 

33 

26 

05 

6 

12 

35 

16 

04 

7 

07 

24 

25 

18 

7 

05 

40 

22 

22 

4 

05 

19 

22 

16 

7 

06 

41 

28 

14 

7 

01 

41 

21 

16 

6 








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09 

08 

11 

06 

10 

11 


87 


Peabody Aural Oral Mother's Rating of 

Vocabulary Skills Skills Child's French 


13 4 3 

16 5 3 
22 2 2 
04 1 2 
10 4 4 

14 4 5 
22 6 5 
00 4 4 

17 2 3 
06 3 3 
13 3 2 
06 7 4 

22 7 7 
12 3 2 
25 6 6 
06 1 1 
25 4 3 

18 3 2 
05 2 2 
21 5 4 
21 2 2 

23 7 7 

21 6 5 

19 5 5 
06 6 5 
00 3 3 
09 4 3 

22 7 7 
18 4 4 
03 3 5 
16 6 5 
22 3 2 
06 2 2 


1 

2 

1 

1 

2 

3 

2 

1 

2 

1 

2 

3 

3 
1 

4 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
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2 
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88 


Mother's Self 

Mother's Rating 

Favoritism 

Desire for 

Rating of 

of Father's 

for 

French 

French 

French 

European 

Identity 



French 


9 

9 

3 

08 

0 

9 

6 

08 

1 

6 

0 

10 

1 

6 

0 

10 

9 

9 

6 

09 

0 

0 

6 

08 

3 

0 

6 

08 

1 

5 

3 

08 

1 

5 

3 

08 

0 

8 

0 

09 

5 

9 

6 

09 

7 

9 

0 

10 

9 

9 

0 

08 

4 

7 

3 

08 

0 

9 

3 

10 

0 

1 

3 

07 

8 

9 

6 

11 

1 

1 

6 

07 

2 

0 

3 

08 

2 

0 

3 

08 

9 

8 

3 

07 

9 

6 

6 

11 

9 

9 

0 

10 

0 

0 

0 

06 

9 

1 

6 

08 

0 

0 

3 

09 

2 

6 

6 

09 

9 

9 

0 

09 

6 

9 

6 

06 

9 

9 

6 

08 

5 

0 

6 

06 

6 

6 

0 

08 

1 

1 

6 

08 
















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89 


French 

I.Q. 

Clinical Rating 

Acquaintances 


of Attitude 
Towards French 


2 

106 

4 

3 

112 

3 

3 

09 7 

1 

3 

101 

1 

0 

113 

2 

0 

139 

2 

4 

111 

2 

3 

092 

2 

3 

134 

2 

1 

116 

2 

4 

110 

3 

4 

073 

3 

4 

100 

4 

2 

115 

2 

4 

131 

4 

0 

085 

2 

4 

103 

3 

2 

137 

2 

2 

101 

2 

2 

128 

2 

2 

112 

2 

4 

099 

4 

4 

09 7 

3 

4 

123 

4 

4 

117 

4 

0 

125 

1 

2 

090 

2 

4 

100 

4 

2 

105 

2 

0 

095 

3 

2 

127 

2 

4 

127 

3 

2 

117 

2 


























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APPENDIX F 


CORRELATION MATRIX 




91 


1 . 

2 . 


3 . 


4 . 

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6 . 


7 . 


8 . 


9 . 


10 . 


11 . 


12 . 

13 . 


14 . 


15 . 


16 . 


17 . 


18 . 


19 . 


20 . 


21 . 

22 . 


LIST OF ITEMS IN CORRELATION MATRIX 

Mental age 
Chronological age 
Sex (male) 

Stanford-Binet vocabulary 

Blishen Index 

Home level of French 

Parental attitude towards French culture scale 

Integrative orientation 

Instrumental orientation 

Degree of nationalism 

Degree of prejudice 

A French translation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 

A measure of aural skills 

A measure of oral skills 

Mother's rating of child's French 

Mother's self rating of French 

Mother's rating of father's French 

Favoritism for European French 

Desire for French identity 

French acquaintances 


I.Q. 

Clinical rating of parental attitude towards French culture. 




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